It seems only recently born baby. And you just its health and nutrition care. And already passed 4-5 years, and the time has come to think seriously about how to prepare a child for school. – Such thoughts and concerns are familiar to all parents of five-six-year olds.
My many years of experience working with children of pre-school shows that there is nothing difficult in this transition if the child develops systematically, comprehensively and successfully. In this case, there is no need for any special and specially organized activity baby called “preparation for school.” It therefore refers to the period of a person’s life to-school, that everything that happens to a child in the first 6 years, and there his preparation for school.
How to Prepare your Child for School
The concept of “school readiness” is made up of several components. This is a physical, emotional and strong-willed, psychological, mental and motivational readiness. For successful learning the child should reach a certain level of development in all these areas.
Physical readiness for school is the child reaches physical maturity, the development of endurance and strength. One measure of physical fitness is the beginning of a change of time your baby teeth to permanent. And it is logical, in particular, to take this point into consideration when deciding at what age to give the child to school – in 6 or 7 years. The future student must be able to retain long-term static posture, be able to wear the hard pack. And, of course, be healthy.
If you are unsure of the child’s endurance, accustom it to run slower, but for 2-4 minutes without a break. Pedestrian walks for 30 minutes without a break. Wow, if he is accustomed to a daily morning exercises.
When my daughter was getting ready to go to school, it was a natural development of its “weakest link.” She was often ill, was a weak and tire easily. Then I took up with her hardening, morning gymnastics and hiking. It was in these years, we have become a family on skis and skates.
And excellent service we concelebrated the attraction it feasible to work in the country. I identified her small plant pot 50 cm. X 100 cm., And allowed it to grow plants of your choice. Absolutely alone. She chose the sunflower and pumpkin. Posada, loose, watered, watched the growth of plants. Grown Harvest surprised not only her, but also to our whole family. She got stronger physically and become more independent in the course of regular work. Learn to take responsibility for their work.
And these skills are already a sphere of emotional and volitional readiness for school . Child to 6 years should be skilled in performing even simple, but regular duties. First of all, in self-service.
Often a stumbling block in the first years in school, lack of independence becomes a child in the home. Therefore, education of preschool autonomy is a very important factor in its preparation for school. This skills dressing, undressing, independent food in 2-3 years, lacing shoes, hats tying, buttoning buttons on outer clothing in 4-5 years, the cultural and hygiene practices throughout the preschool years.
Often in families having a child accustomed to the problem of cutting away their toys. This is probably the first duty of a baby around 3-4 years of age.
When I was accustomed to the cleaning of toys daughter, came to help me, the game itself. I have included in the game’s daughter, and the plot gradually “folded the action.” Dolls went to bed, went from house to house builders, tools evolved in warehouses. Sometimes the interference in the game caused the protest of my child. Then I left her alone, but always warned that the game time runs out, for example, 10 minutes. The child may not immediately end the game. After all, we, adults, need some time to finish the job. After this time, if the daughter does not stack toys, I started their own fold. And certainly not put in places where they were before. Thus, the daughter then they could not find. To which I replied reasonably: “Toys – it’s your thing. Folding them herself, then you will know where they are “ . Gradually, my baby learned to regulate his conduct. And feel the time, which is important in the educational activity.
If your son or daughter to six years are not accustomed to self-monitor their belongings, clean up after a toy, it is possible to count on the fact that when they start school, they will be able to keep order in your school supplies? And clothes, too. In this case, the child invariably will arise difficulty remembering homework, with a portfolio fees. Non-automatic children often forget something – whether from home to take to school, or from school to take home. Therefore, the first step in the preparation of the child in school – it learned self-reliance.
Self skills are important. Not only them. It is important to teach the future student to perform public duties. For example, my daughter can take care of the pets or plants. A son reasonable charge, for example, shoe-shine all family members. When selecting obligations to the child it is important to consider not only the priorities of adult family members, and especially the nature and development of the interests of the child. The fact that he is required to do on a regular basis, be it in power. The work must be appreciated.
During the permanent duties child learns to order a certain rhythm of life. Perhaps the most important thing is that the baby begins to feel like an adult and self-reliant.
The offices of the future students should be mandatory and regular regardless of his mood and desires. – When a person does something, even through the “do not want”, he formed the will, self-discipline and responsibility. In this case, the routine daily performance of school duties will not catch you off guard genius.
How to teach a child to the charges? The first stage is illogical to immediately load the regular and long-term obligations. Suppose that at the beginning it will be short-term occasional assignments. First, occasional commissions, consisting of one or two consecutive actions: “Go to the bathroom, take off from the drying and bring me a towel, please” .- Instructions must be very detailed, specific and understandable to the child. And then, gradually complicating the task, to a lesser degree of detail. And the choice of method to stimulate action by the child: “Look, if it is time to water your flower bed? If withered, its fields “ .
For emotional and volitional readiness for school can be attributed to the child’s communication skills with others. Adult – familiar and unfamiliar. And with their peers.
If the baby is not able to communicate on an equal footing with their peers, he is bound to be with them in a conflict or confrontation. Children’s team quite tough and uncompromising. Therefore, even in kindergarten children need the skills of coexistence, friendship and peaceful conflict resolution. It is important that the baby was able to defend their point of view, and it does not behave arrogantly. To lorded it over other children, and, at the same time, he did not allow disrespectful attitude. To know how and was ready to find a compromise solution to the conflict.
For the formation of social skills there is only one way – to exercise. That is why, even if there is such a need, the child has a sense issue in kindergarten 4-5 years. That he has acquired the skills to communicate with their peers. Children are taught each other themselves. The child learns to give in practice, insist on, to find ways of cooperation that will suit him and his playmates.
Community groups in circles and does not give early development efficiency in forming a communication skills, because they have little time for children free communication, they have little interact with each other. More they communicate with the coach or teacher. communication problems with peers do not usually occur in large families or if your children have a lot of friends around the same age with them.
With the 4-5 year old children is an effective method to discuss the situation, real or invented. Choose a time when you will not hurry, and the child is set to talk. Ask how he communicates with friends. What attracts them, and they do not like. As they settle conflicts. And examine one of the cases presented to them. Especially come up with additional conditions that complicate the adoption of optimal solutions. Let him think, trying, chooses argues. Lose this situation with toys.
Take on the role of another child. If you know that your child may show stubbornness, aggression, or capricious, take on the role of such a child. To see your baby, as it looks from the outside, it is difficult and unpleasant to be friends with these children. Put him in a situation where he himself will have to overcome the negative qualities that he is inclined to exercise. Tell us in the role that he felt what she wants another baby. This will teach you not only hear the stubborn fellow, but also aware of their own needs and feelings.
The ability to communicate with adult friends and strangers – one of the conditions for success in school. After all, the kid will have to seek the help of the teacher, ask again or ask him something in the classroom. Children often have difficulties with this. The reasons for these difficulties may be different.
If your child is shy, insecure, then he has a bad experience with adults, in which he was not understood, not heard, not supported in their needs. In this case, children need praise more often, less often berate and exhort for the imperfect performance of tasks or behaviors.
Assist specially created a situation in which your son or daughter becomes a positive experience in dealing with sellers in a store , the conductor in the transport, grandmother, which gives way to the bus. – The mass of options. Stimulate its activity and independence. Let the child himself to turn to strangers with a request – to buy bread or a ticket to travel. Let give way to transport her grandmother. Let ask a stranger how to get to the store. Such an experience he must acquire in your presence. Let him know that you are near. But do not help, let them acquire their own experience. And then be sure to praise for the success, albeit partial. Talk about what happened, what it is not. And that prevented communication. If the child is aware of their difficulties, so he has the strength to overcome them.
It happens that the child does not know how to formulate the request, does not know how to appeal to adults. Teach him clearly, loudly and speak politely. A very important example of the parents themselves. After all, the baby all the time watching us and imitate our behavior. That’s how a lot of important aspects of emotionally-strong-willed preparation of the child for school.
By the psychological readiness for school training includes the development of his psychic processes. It is the development of memory, attention, mental synthesis operations, analysis, synthesis and comparison.
By the time they start school, children should be able to store up to 10 items, shown to him briefly. Or to 6-8 words. Show him the 10 subject images where one object is depicted. And let the memory will name those who remember.
The second test is the level of development of memory – a word game. Call at a time with the child Any words not related with each other. Name 10, and ask your child to remember what words were nazvany.Takim way, you will know the level of short-term memory of your baby. Let held for half an hour, an hour. And again, ask him to name what he had seen, or what you said. It will be a long-term involuntary memory. It should be aged six years at 6-8 4-5 words or subjects.
The next series of test games – tell that images that you look, you need to remember. So you find out the child’s level of voluntary memory.
These simple games are a test, and developing character. That is, if periodically with the child to play well, it will increase the amount of memory. And if looking at the picture, you have them still and try to classify for some sign – vegetables, fruit, furniture, clothing, living-nonliving objects by color, size or shape – you teach your child ways of associative thinking and memory.
In our time, we increased the number of children with a low level of attention. There are many reasons. One is the attachment to the TV, and, not viewing the same program at the same time as “clatter” through channels. Attention all time is switched from one object to another. If this is about you and your baby – even take away his control. Let him see already the cartoon. And then you retell its content.
Child 6 years old should be able to hold the attention involuntarily to 30 minutes. This is when it is busy occupation that he is interested in and enjoy. – Usually, the parents say, wondering if your child can engage in a long time, will not tear off. At the same time, voluntary attention and should be developed with the child prepare for the entry into the school. – Not all the jobs in the school will be easy and fun. In this case, the future of the student must be formed Skill conscious and willful retention of attention.
When preparing the child for school, check how well developed his attention and concentration. You can check this by considering two similar pictures, and there are small differences in them. In our time, in any book or children’s stores such books or a lot of games. They are well written, “the development of attention, memory,” there is also a description of the tasks and games for malyshey.- Use.
Develop attention should be gradually increasing the time organized activities with the child. For example, you are reading a book to his son. First, it is interesting, and then the baby begins to be distracted. Continuing to read, change tempo, volume, expressive reading. Take the child by the hand or put her on his knee. So you activate the baby’s attention. And read about another 3-4 minutes. This will gradually increase the time during which the child holds the attention. It is important to take into account the real level of development of the child’s attention at the moment.
Select the text to read in such a way that it is almost enough for the time that the child may be mindful. It is important that you have finished reading to the end – or the entire text or a separate chapter. Then the child can understand why you need to make an effort to listen to. The same principles hold the attention are valid for any other activity – design, sewing, cooking salad or dumplings. When the child begins to be distracted, hold it, showing how much is left up to bring the matter to an end.
In preparing the child for school is important to develop thinking. Development thinking – is an educational game. Various designer Lego, puzzles, with which spatial thinking develops in children. Fine motor skills of hands, the development of which is necessary for successful teaching writing student. Discrimination of shape, size, color and number of parts. Search for different ways of solving problems and coming up with independent structures. It is, after all, the ability to see it through. – All these skills are essential for success of the child in school.
When preparing the child to school pay attention to developing games with which the child learns to distinguish and highlight the main features in the secondary object of his research. Learn to classify objects according to various criteria. First – one color, size, purpose, form, and then for several simultaneously.
- Count the items in the top row. How many of them all. How many Christmas trees? accustom once considered child left
- What is more, less, by how much?
- Do herringbone Same? What is the difference?
- Count items on order. What order is a large herringbone? third.
- What it is in the upper right corner, lower left? What it is in the middle of the top row.
In this example you can see that in the course of a simple conversation with a toddler can be converted into its comprehensive development:
- this training account items, comparing values to each other.
- development orientation in space
- Learning correct speech application of mathematical and spatial terms formulation requires precision.
- training comparison methods classification.
- the development of attention, memory.
Such discussions can be organized considering all pictures in books.
An important element in the preparation of the child for school is a viewing scene pictures . This pastime also contributes to the comprehensive development of the child. In such mental processes as the synthesis and analysis of time viewing is best developed. They its mechanism are opposite to each other. Synthesis – is the ability of the details add up and see the whole. Analysis And, conversely, identifies and separates the whole into parts.
Play with your son or daughter to the game “Binoculars”. – Roll the tube sheet of paper and ask your child to consider the image through binoculars. First – the individual parts pictures. The child will say that to draw a tree, ball, doll, girl, water. After this “turn” the other side of the binoculars and look at the picture in the “diminutive glass.” So that the child was able to immediately reach glance the whole picture. Encourage your child to name a word that is drawn in the picture. Come up with a name. As a result, it should get a response that reflects the main idea of the image. For example, “In the summer on the beach”, “The River”, “Fun on the Water” – here you can come up with a variety of options. It is important that the name was not the name of your and the baby. And so he understood the meaning of the whole image as a whole.
It is this kind of job is often in first-graders causes difficulties. Because this aspect of the development of thinking adult children pay less attention. What, for example, learning to read.
It is teaching children to read the vast majority of parents believe the main preparation for school. Although it is not the only and, I emphasize, not the main skills necessary for children who first cross the threshold of the school.
Because if your baby at the time of admission to the school will have a sufficient level of development of memory and attention of thinking; if there is a curious and diligent, you will learn to read it very quickly.
In addition, in the same class are usually children and reading and reading. And, the teacher still learning to read begins the class. Moreover, the program is first class for six-year suggests that children come who can not read.
This is the teachers themselves tend to get children reading, so you can quickly move forward on the curriculum. However, it is rarely possible to form a class full of children have mastered this skill in its entirety.
Exceptions are classes in gymnasiums, lyceums, where in contrast to schools, teachers have the right to test the prospective students. And there really need to get the baby is already able to read.
In fact, a child with a good level of attention and curiosity to learn to read simple. It is important to observe the reactions of the baby and go after them, and not to impose the pace and method of study.
In modern science, there are many methods of teaching reading children of different ages. The most fashionable of them is a method Zaitseva, who promises to teach reading to 2 years of age. To teach is really possible, but of a child who is ready for this. The method is good because it involves just learning to read by syllables. But not by letter. This step is skipped reading, when a child calls the individual letters and can not bind them to the floor. It turns out something like this: “We-as-we-ah.” With the “mother” connect hard enough.
According to the method Zaitseva of material purchased in the store manufactured cubes with letters and with syllables. Inside are placed iron, plastic and wooden small objects. Thus, cubes will rattle differently. And in the mind of the baby connected reaction of visual and auditory analyzers. Because voiced consonants will ring with metal sound, and deaf – wood, for example. On the other hand, children need to remember not only the names of letters and syllables. But even as, indeed, the iron rings, and like a tree. Someone so absorb reading easier, but someone more complicated. – Try.
Like a table of syllables Zaitseva. It can be hung in the baby’s room and periodically “read” him some words – looking in the right syllables table. It is important, as in the food, observe the measure – to move away from the table a little earlier than the child tired of this game. Then it will be for the baby game. And with time, he will remember the syllables and begin to look for them on the table yourself.
There is another method of learning to read, which was used in Soviet schools and kindergartens in the Soviet era. This method is based on the development of the baby phonemic hearing before training spell. This training period was called – dobukvarnym. Based on the fact that the child first learns to identify by ear and allocate sounds in words. Since the vowels from the beginning of the word. The gradual transition of finding sounds at the end of words, and then in the middle.
To help the child in the first step is easy. Suffice it to reach the first impressively zvku:. “And-and-watermelon” “Rr-hand.” “Duck-ah,” etc. There are many exciting games that promote the child’s phonemic hearing. This “Catch sound” when the baby claps his hands when he hears a particular sound. “Think of the sound of words” – the highest recall of words beginning with a particular sound. “The chain of words” when the last sound of the preceding word is the first of the following: a watermelon – a tooth – the letter – Watercolor ….
I like these games, because they can start playing with just 2 age. We are playing with a toddler ask him: “How the cat screaming?”, “What is buzzing tractor?” – P-p-p. “And the wind blow?” – Sh-sh-sh. And so on. And I like the fact that these games do not need to separately allocate time. You can play them while walking, even going into the garden or out of it.
Very well, this method is combined with corrections in sound pronunciation child. By the time all defects of speech entering school should be eliminated, because the child will write and as says. If we, for example, teach baby to correctly pronounce the sound “sh”, we focus his attention on the sound. We learn to say it in different words, that it is in different parts of the word. The child hears the eye, that one and the same sound in different words there. And we say to him that as the houses in the constructor of the building blocks and the words are composed of sounds.
In addition, if the child says is wrong, for example, the sound of “C”, then most likely, he has difficulty in pronunciation of hissing or whistling sounds. Because the mechanism of their pronunciation is very similar. This means that the focus is already several similar sounds. on hearing child learns to distinguish between them.
This is dobukvarny period of learning to read. Because a child who is in the ear detects sounds and hears their sequence in the word, they may be isolated and sing, you just show icons, letters, and it immediately, for a few days will begin to read. It will be very interesting – because it is all piled into the mind. He understands that if the sound is the sound of P A, then K, then getting cancer. Now it is very interesting also to see it. Fold the letter as a familiar puzzle. Finding new words, rearranging the letters. By manipulating only the three letters, it is easy to get and the RAC and CAR, and ARC. It’s a fun activity for children. Laugh with him, think of words that begin with these combinations. Be creative and communicate with your baby to everyone’s delight. Then the child will not run away from school, and will seek them.
And this is a motivational training of the child for school . How often can hear from parents who want to involve your son or daughter for classes to prepare for school, “Here you go to school, then you will know ….” “The school will not have time to play …”. What we achieve in this way – Phobias schools and unwillingness to go there. Aversion to cognitive activities, which relate the uninteresting long and difficult training. Adult disapproval ratings on the results of studies.
Is it any wonder that by the end of the first four of the first class, according to statistics, 90% of children go to school do not want to.
Preschoolers, when asked whether they want to go to school, the vast majority say they want. However, not all children respond openly. They know what they are waiting for a response from adults. It is also important, why a child wants to go to school. Very often students meet future that want to go to school because they have grown up. To be able to stay awake during the day. Because all my friends go there. To wear a backpack, etc. That is, the bulk of the children tend to the outer side of school life, and not to the training activities as such.
And even if the children respond that you need to go to school to learn to read and count, they are easy to confuse. It is enough to ask the question: “And now you know how to read. And up to 10,100 can count. You have already learned this and without the school. ? Why go to school, “In conversation with the child to ascertain the motivation of his desire to go to school there is another tricky question:” What if we could choose: to study with her mother at home, or go to school, how would you like to learn ? “- the children often choose a home version of the study.
When a pre-school child manages to speak frankly about the school and its expectations from school, often about 50% of the children come to the conclusion that it would be better not to go there.
That is why I want to encourage parents to think carefully about what age to give the child to school. At six years of a child leading activities that best contributes to its development and all-round formation, a play activity. A child of six years old yet very homely and vulnerable. It can be quite intelligent but little from a psychological point of view. It can successfully learn, but learn from playing the game.
Unfortunately, most teachers teach six-year and seven-and the same methods developed over the years of practice. But very different nature in children aged 6 and 7.
Semiletka already very clearly and confidently say they want to go to school to learn something new, to grow smart, etc. For 7 years it became the leading activity educational activity. It provides for the child and the development and communication, and growth.
Therefore, it is important to tell more child about school, about how there wondering what can be learned there. And even better – to show classes, computers and appliances, gym, dining room, etc. Play with the child in school, giving him the opportunity to stay, and a teacher and student.
All human activity is more successful if it is his joy and pleasure. This care is not as important as other aspects of the preparation of the child for school.
You see, if the “do not drive horses”, and allow the child to mature and ripen, carefully and consistently develop something that he runs and is ready, there is no difficulty in preparing the child to school.
A fully cover it is impossible, even in a large article like this. Because the preparation of the child for school – it is the whole period of the life of a baby from birth to 6-7 years.
Attention, love and common sense, parents can work wonders. And be sure your baby will delight you with their school success.