About which you most likely do not know.
On Monday in Stockholm the Nobel started a week, which will end on 10 October. During this time we will know the names of the winners in all categories, except for literature – the award in this category will host the 13th.
Among the rules of the Nobel Prize is the condition under which all prizes (except the Peace Prize) may be awarded to one person only once.
However, there are four Nobel Prize winners, who received the award twice – Maria Sklodowska-Curie (physics – in 1903, chemistry – in 1911), Linus Pauling (chemistry – in 1954, the Peace Prize – in 1962), John Bardeen (physics – in 1956 and 1972) and Frederick Sanger (in chemistry – in 1958 and 1980).
There are also the only three-time winner – The International Committee of the Red Cross, received the Peace Prize (the only one of the prizes, allowing the nomination not only individuals, but also organizations) in 1917, 1944 and 1963.
Nobel laureates-women is sufficiently small
The most famous woman honored with awards (by the way, double) – is, of course, Maria Sklodowska-Curie. She was also the first woman to be nominated for an honorary award.
In total, the fair sex received the Nobel Prize 44 times. The greatest number of winners among owners Peace Prize (15 persons) and the Prize for Literature (11 people). The first female Nobel Peace Prize was an American Emily Greene Bolchu in 1946.
Most often, the laureates are over 50 years old
The average age of the award-winning all six nominations is 59 years old. Among the winners in chemistry and physics, the average age – 57 years, laureates in medicine – 55.
The most age Nobel Prize winner Leonid Hurwicz became (in 2007) and Lloyd Shapley Stowell (in 2012). At the time of the Nobel Prize in economics scholars have been 90 and 89 years respectively.
The youngest scientist, received the award, became in 1915 the 25-year-old physicist William Lawrence Bragg.
The Germans and the Nobel Prize
When in power in Germany were National Socialists, the German scientist forbidden to receive the Nobel Prize. Because of this, no awards were Laureates in Chemistry Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), and Laureate in Medicine Gerhard Domagk (1939). In fairness it is worth noting that after World War II, scientists still received diplomas and medals, but the financial rewards have not seen.
Failures of the premium
Yes, from the Nobel Prize refused, not once. It is worth mentioning Leo Tolstoy, who refused in 1906. The author of “War and Peace” explained the failure philosophically – it would be difficult to dispose of the prize as “money can bring only evil.”
Also noteworthy cases of failures Peace Prize laureate Le Dykh Thoi and laureate for literature, Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre was a stranger to any celebration and official recognition, Le Dykh Tho also explained the refusal by the civil war in Vietnam.