Bacteria are substantially different from viruses. First, they are much larger, and secondly, are completely finished living organism, which can itself provide and reproduce itself with the appropriate food. Once in the human body, some bacteria are conditions suitable for breeding and feeding, – here and there is a certain disease.
Until the twentieth century, the fight against bacterial infections doctors did not differ from that in comparison with viral infections – all efforts were reduced to help the body to survive and cope with the disease itself. Fortunately, modern medicine is noticeably increased. This happened thanks to the creation of several groups of drugs, allowing to kill the germ and thus do not cause significant harm to the person. About this medication you certainly have heard – antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin), sulfonamides (streptocid, etazol, Biseptol) and something else.
After reading these lines, the reader may be quite false impression with regard to the fact that bacterial infections are treated much more easily, as compared with viral infections. This, unfortunately, is not. Not so, firstly, because the bacteria show wonders adaptability, and as scientists have come up with newer and newer antibiotics, appear more and more new mutations all known bacteria in which these antibiotics do not work (or are short-lived, or it does not act so much as we would like). Secondly, the same bacterial diseases – for example, pneumonia or meningitis – can be caused by hundreds of a variety of microbes and the doctor, sometimes it is very difficult to answer the question: “Who is guilty?” and, accordingly, the right to punish the guilty, assigning the appropriate antibiotic.
World bacteria surprisingly diverse as diverse and large number of diseases caused by them. Bacteria differ from each other in size, structural features, reproduction and feeding, very different conditions under which they may normally exist. Some bacteria have a round shape – they are called cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus, meningococcus, gonococcus), others – an elongated, they are called rods (dysentery bacillus, pertussis, E.). Bacteria often do not have a flat surface, and everyone there outgrowths, flagella, cilia.
Unlike viruses, bacteria is not inherent in a strict selectivity in the defeat of certain organs of the human body. But their “preferences” have each microbe. So dysentery bacillus finds optimal conditions for himself in a certain section of the large intestine, the causative agent of whooping cough – cells in the airway epithelium, meningococcal (meningitis pathogen) – in the brain membranes. At the same time, is not particularly Staphylococcus intelligibility and can cause inflammation anywhere – on the skin and bones, and in the lungs, and intestines, etc.
Now it is perhaps the most important.
The bacterium, which would be a terrible and nasty it did not seem, as a rule, does not bring any harm to the human body. But as a full-fledged living beings, bacteria produce products of their vital activity, which, in turn, is nothing but a very real poisons. They call these poisons – toxins. Each has its own bacteria toxins, toxins and it is, or rather their specific effects on the human body, the symptoms of a particular disease are defined.
And the amount of toxins, and the risk of each individual at each toxin, bacteria, their individual. And toxins and bacterial cell itself around the body reacts as a virus. Those. and the toxin itself and envelope the bacteria and its outgrowths (cilia, flagella) – this specific antigens against which antibodies are produced by appropriate, eliminating adverse effects on the human body. And the bacteria themselves also digested special cells-eaters – phagocytes.
In most cases, the toxins are produced in the destruction of bacteria – that is, they are in most of the bacterial cell and are released when it is destroyed. The bacteria in the human body is constantly broken – firstly, they themselves are short-lived, and secondly, the fact and immunity to bacteria fight and, thirdly, the bacteria are destroyed during treatment, all of the same antibiotics, e.g. .
The toxins that are produced by bacteria called endotoxins death ( “endo” – means inside).
There is a very small number of bacteria vital activity which is accompanied by constant release of toxins – ie bacteria can produce toxins, but does not die at the same time!
Such toxins formed during the life of bacteria, called exotoxins ( “exo” – from the outside, from the outside).
Exotoxins – the most dangerous poisons of all discovered or invented by now (!).
Diseases which pathogens produce exotoxin called exotoxic. What is disease? Diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene, anthrax – all these names you have heard many times, that is, they (the disease), though exotoxic, but, unfortunately, not exotic (pun intended).
In some infections, the bacteria are able to produce both exo- and endotoxins. There are complexities in the treatment. Examples of such diseases – whooping cough, cholera, dysentery, some embodiments.
Danger exotoxic infections is that antibiotics can not help – in the time it will take until they appoint (first because it is necessary to put the diagnosis), so long as they kill the microbe may be too late. Antibiotics have done its job, no bacteria, but toxins remain. They will destroy the body and, if time does not enter medicine, neutralizing toxins (antitoxic serum).
It is because in the treatment of infections in the hopes exotoxic few antibiotics and serum can not always have time, most importantly – prevention!
It is not designed for all infections, but its (prophylaxis) well understood principles: (!) If there is a toxin, it is necessary to constantly circulate in humans antitoxin i.e. antidote. That is why children vaccinations (especially against diphtheria and tetanus) – injected toxins are greatly weakened and, as a result, the child’s body produces a very decent immunity as produced antitoxin.