Newborn baby perceives the world as a stream of rapidly changing sensations. All feelings, sounds, images for him unfamiliar and unrelated. The child is no sense of time, feelings and he can not separate himself from the outside world. His system of thought no cause and effect. Events occur as if by themselves, independently of each other. The baby is hungry and crying hear your own. Born Is this cry within his being heard, or from somewhere else? Maybe, and weeping, and the feeling of hunger disappear because my mother come? The child does not know the answer and can not ask … Because the disorder is crying and crying for comfort should be in the mind of the child gradually builds a connection between these events. He sees you in your crib, and already feels that now is the feeling of comfort and peace. After some time, the baby will begin to intuitively feel safe in the knowledge that his desire will be satisfied. As the child grows the confidence to you, in you is growing self-confidence. You are already able to correctly assess its propensity know his strengths, can adapt to the pace of development of the baby and meet their needs. Now you become the most important person in his life who understands his needs and nature. During the first days and weeks of getting stronger bond of love between you and your baby. These warm and affectionate relationship will be the first lesson of love for him. Throughout his life, he will draw from them energy and to build on the basis of their relationship with the outside world.
A newborn baby is not able to eat or move, but it is not helpless. He comes into the world, keeping in stock a large set of behaviors based on the unconditioned reflexes. Most of them are vital for the baby. For example, if a newborn baby pat on the cheek, he turns his head and looks for lips nipple. If you put a pacifier in his mouth, the child will automatically start sucking it. Another set of reflexes to protect the child from physical damage. If the baby to cover your nose and mouth, he will turn the head from side to side. When his face is approaching an object, it automatically blinking eyes. Several newborn reflexes are vital, but that they can be used to determine the level of development of the child. Examining a newborn baby, a pediatrician holding him in different positions, suddenly it makes a loud noise, a finger on the baby’s foot. By the way the child responds to these and other actions, the doctor confirms that the newborn reflexes are normal and the nervous system in order. While most refleksrv inherent newborn disappear during the first year of life, some of them became the basis for the acquired behaviors. At first, the baby sucks on instinct, but as you gain experience, he adapts and changes its action depending on the specific conditions. The same can be said of the grasping reflex. Newborn baby every time the same compresses fingers no matter what subject to put his palm. However, when the baby four months old, he had already learned to control his movements. First, he will focus on the subject, then stretch out and grab it. We tend to assume that all babies begin their development at the same starting point, but they differ significantly from each other in the level of physical activity. Some children are surprisingly sluggish and passive. Lying on his stomach or back, they remain almost motionless as long as they are not pripodnimut not shuffle. Others, however, exhibit marked activity. If such a child in the crib put face down, it will slowly but surely move to her bedside until it rested in the corner. Very active kids can reflexively roll over from stomach to back. Another important difference in the newborn – the level of muscle tone. Some children look very strained: their knees constantly bent, hands held tightly to the body, fingers clenched into fists. Other – more relaxed, the muscle tone of extremities they are not so strong. The third difference between the newborn is the degree of development of their sensory-motor system. Some children, especially young or those who were born prematurely, it is easy to deduce from equilibrium. Any, even the slightest noise they tremble with his whole being, and their arms and legs begin to move randomly. Sometimes, for no apparent reason on their calf shiver. Other kids from birth seem well developed. They seemed to know how to put your hand in the mouth or around the mouth, and often do it to calm down. When they move their feet, their movements are arranged and rhythmically. Different levels of development of motor skills, muscle tone and sensory-motor apparatus, which are observed in newborns, reflect the peculiarities of the organization of the nervous system. Children who are actively behave well developed and have normal muscle tone, are considered to be the parents of children with light. For passive, underdeveloped children with sluggish or, conversely, too tight muscle tone, which is observed the first months of life, it is much harder to maintain. Fortunately, thanks to the care and patience, caring NIJ parents, most children overcome these difficulties and in its development fast catching peers.
The ability to see, hear, feel
A child is born with an innate repertoire of reactions that help him to adapt to the world around them. He screws up his eyes when a bright light is lit, or any object close to his face. On a small extent it can track the eye moving object or a human face. A newborn baby also has an innate ability, through their sense of new information. It is curious that he even shows a certain preference among what he sees. Typically, infants prefer configuration with marked point and is especially attracted to moving objects and a combination of black and white. Think about what has amazing properties of human eyes. It is difficult to resist the conclusion that the child was originally incorporated the unique ability to establish eye contact with their parents. Along with congenital visual abilities, the newborn also has an extraordinary ear. We not only believe that the baby hears at birth, but there is every reason to assume that he heard while still in the womb. Newborn head rotates in the direction from which the sound is heard, especially if it is an unfamiliar sound, and vice versa, by-vorochivaetsya from repetitive, loud or continuous sounds. Even more amazing is the fact that the child is able to distinguish the human voice from any other sound. In other words, in addition to the innate ability to look you in the eye, in a child laid the ability to hear your voice. However, despite the fact that the newborn is able to perceive the sound and turn in the direction from which he heard, his visual and auditory systems are not coordinated. If a child hears, the source of which is located directly in front of him, he will not instinctively look at him. For the development of such coordination takes time. Giving your child the opportunity to get acquainted with the objects that attract his attention and his views, and the sound of his parents lay in the mind of the baby a basis for the ability to bind the seen with the heard. Until now, it was a child’s ability to see and hear. Now it is time to talk about other sensations: a taste, of smell and touch. Kids love sweets, and refuse to salty, sour and bitter are poor. In addition, they turn away from the strong and pungent smells. It is also known that newborns respond to various kinds of touch. While vigorous rubbing with a towel excites the kid, gentle massage is able to euthanize him. Through a bullock with your fingertips or a piece of soft silk fabric, you can bring it into a state of quiet wakefulness. Tiny especially nice to feel the touch of human skin. Many mothers, breast-feeding children are told that the baby begins to actively suck if his hand on his mother’s chest. We have described some typical ways in which children respond to different kinds of stimuli, when the child’s reactions to them are shown differently, depending on specific conditions. Dr. Prehtl and Dr. Brazelton, and • other researchers who study the neonatal note that children have different levels of excitability. This level of excitability are caused by behaviors of children. Waking up, the child may be in a quiet wakefulness or active wakefulness, and may scream or cry. How newborn reacts to what is happening in the outside world, most of all depends on the degree of excitation. A child in a state of wakefulness, heard the call, immediately stop their actions and try to turn aside there was a sound. The same kid excited or irritable condition may simply not notice the call.
Understanding your child
infancy period – a time when the parents and the child and adapt to each other. Taking care of the baby makes adults in a new way to organize your daily routine. Newborn, both physically and psychologically adapt to life outside the mother’s body. An integral part of this process is the self-regulation of the child. He learns to regulate the degree of their activity, so as to smoothly move from the state of sleep to wakefulness and vice versa. In the first weeks after birth much effort you will go on to help your child master these transition states. Watcher child responds to sounds, staring at the face of others, and it seems that he is attentive and intelligent eyes. At such times the energy of the baby aims to take in information, and then the parents have the opportunity to engage and communicate with him. However, too much exercise can tire the child. Newborn itself can not emerge from the state of excitation. It is therefore particularly important that parents feel the time that the baby needed rest. If his mouth frowning, fists are compressed and it goes through the legs nervously, then it’s time to relax. The periods of activity and rest in a child’s life should be interleaved. Properly accounting for the daily routine, you can help your baby in a natural way to move from one state to another. After feeding, for example, you can hold it in a vertical position, leaning against the shoulder, or by taking on the hands, gently shake. Sometimes the child may come to a standstill and, after a strong shout. If awake baby starts to act up, and it is clear that he was going to cry, the parents usually are trying to prevent this. However, in some cases it will be better to give the opportunity to shout as it should. Apparently, the child crying relieves stress and helps him to move from one state to another. Even immediately after the slumber he cries, passing a state of quiet wakefulness, naplakal he can find it. However, as a rule, the newborn can be very difficult to go from a state of crying without help. All children need help to calm down. However, each of them requires an individual approach. Some children calm down, if the parents take care of their arms or wrapped in a soft warm blanket. Others, on the contrary, chafe at any restrictions on freedom and calm down more quickly when they are placed on a flat surface, not hiding and not hindering their movements. Most children love it when they are worn or shake. However, each child must have its own approach. Think about which of these methods best suited to your child.
• Walk around the room, clutching the baby to his shoulder.
• Keep baby in the air, swinging from side to side.
• Keep it in the shoulder and rhythmically pat on the back.
• Place the baby on her lap, rhythmically moving them up and down or from side to side, or gently pat the kid on the buttocks.
• Sitting in a rocking chair, put the baby face down on her lap or close to your shoulder, keep upright, rocking slowly.
• Quickly and rhythmically rocking in a rocking chair.
• Put the baby in the stroller and roll it back and forth.
• Walk, putting the child in the stroller or in a special backpack.
• Put the child in the harness home-din choke and gently shake.
• Ride a child in the car.
Sounds like the traffic calming effect on children, but also here the kids have their own preferences. Some will settle down when slyschat continuous sound of a ticking clock, the noise of the washing machine, the sounds that mimic a heartbeat, and so on. D. Others respond better to the quiet conversation, or chanting a soft whisper. There are some kids who like music – lullabies, recording classical works, music from the music box. So far we have talked about how caring and loving parents to help the newborn to adapt to life outside the womb. In turn, the child also has an impact on adult life. It helps them to adapt to their new role – parents. With the birth of the child, they acquire a new social status, and between them and the baby are built very close relationship. The child may communicate its internal state in only two ways – smiling and crying. The development of these methods is practically the same. In the first weeks of baby’s life, they appear as if by themselves, which reflects his reaction to those physiological processes that occur in his body. Creek is a sign of discomfort or pain, a smile – an indication that the child is in a state of rest and have fun. Gradually, the balance begins to shift. Crying and smiling more and more governed by external factors, and as a result the child begins, of course, even without words, to communicate directly with parents. Especially interesting to see how the smile in the first one or two months of life. Initially wandering smile appears on the baby’s little face while sleeping. Then, at the age of two weeks, he begins to smile when his eyes are open, that usually occurs after feeding. At the same smile, usually accompanied by a glass blankly. By the third or fourth week in a smile qualitative changes. The child responds to the loud voice of the parents, with whom he has established eye contact, and eventually adult baby rewards quite conscious smile. The child, who most of the time happy, calm and is in contact with the environment, gives parents the confidence and optimism. Nervous and naughty baby, which is not easy to appease, despite the caring attitude of adults, gives them more problems. Those parents who came first born, baby irritability often associated with the fact that they are inexperienced and do not know how to properly handle them. As soon as they realize that the increased excitability of the baby depends on the internal physiological processes taking place in his body, they will regain confidence. This will help them get through the trials that await them in the first weeks of life. Parents Through trial and error gain experience and find your own way to soothe your baby – swaddled vigorously rocking or just allow him some time how to shout until he falls asleep. It is important that parents are aware from the outset that the difficulties experienced by the child in the first year of life, have nothing to do with the peculiarities of his conduct and character in the future. During the first month of life the baby most parents often experience negative emotions. The young mother, who suffers from constant crying child, exhausted by sleepless nights and delivery, can fall into depression or become irritable in relation to other family members. Father, despite his haughty smile, it can sometimes seem like an infant not only limits his freedom, but it also deprives the attention and care of his wife. As children grow, their sleep lasts longer, and parents adapt to a different routine. After the first difficult period, when only are the relations between the parents and the baby, the family members will be able to fully compensate each other joy of communication.
HOW TO DEAL WITH NEWBORN
The most difficult challenge for the newborn baby during the first month of his life – to adapt to conditions outside the mother’s body. baby sleeps most of the time. Waking up, he begins to behave in accordance with its internal physiological state. Periods of active wakefulness, when the child is ready to accept new information, are rare and short-lived. So do not plan in advance for a class with a newborn, just try to use the opportunity. This option appears when a child is fed and in a good mood. Remember that children are different thresholds of excitability, and if you are overtired toddler, he may begin to worry, screaming and crying.
Engage the child no longer than is necessary He needed human warmth, so he likes to take his hands. Try to find out how this relates to your baby. Some details are nervous and annoyed when they are kept on hand for too long. It happens that raskapriznichavshiysya baby calms down, if it is convenient to put in a children’s backpack. However, if the child is very rarely on the hands, he may become lethargic and apathetic. Change the position of the child when the child is awake, try to vary its posture. Let him for a while lying on his stomach, then on his back or on his side. Being in different positions, the baby learns to move his arms and legs. Children’s calendar next to a changing or dressing table, hang a calendar and a pencil. every new achievement of your child can be recorded in a separate graph. Enjoy the time you spend with the baby laugh and have fun together with the child.