Health care – a system of socio-economic and medical measures aimed to maintain and improve the health of each individual and the population as a whole. The nature and content of health care depend on the method of production, the degree of development of the productive forces, the level of development of science and technology in general and medical science in particular. The dominant relations of production and social structure of society determine the degree of responsibility for the decision of the people’s health problems, as well as the theoretical and organizational principles of health. At the same time within the same socio-economic structure in connection with the historical traditions, peculiarities of the political system, level of economic development and other factors, there may be different forms of health care organization. The degree of implementation of healthcare in the functions of public health largely depends on its material and technical base, the presence of qualified medical personnel, the level of development of medical science. However, the impact of science and technology in the state of medical care to the population was limited and restricted to a degree of implementation of their achievements in the daily practice of medicine, which is ultimately determined by the interest of the state in the health of different population groups. Therefore, health history, until today, knows a lot of the health status of non-compliance examples opportunities offered by advances in science and technology. 3dravoohranenie is the most humane sphere of human activity; it has a significant impact on the economy of the state. Prevention and timely effective treatment of diseases can save manpower society and thereby prevent or reduce material losses resulting from the separation of the worker or the employee from performing his duties. Health care in Russia. On the territory of the Russian Health elements existed among the ancient Slavs. In Kiev State sanitary cleaning of populated areas, disposal of dead during epidemics, has fallen in 9 fights in. given special attention. With the spread of Christianity, its health functions takes over the church. However, in contrast to Western Europe, the Kiev government does not stand apart from the church charity, but rather a legally and financially strengthened it. So, free treatment and charity patients, the poor, widows and orphans, the management of hospitals and baths Charter of the Grand Prince Vladimir (996) has been entrusted to the church. Financial support for this work, it was decided the introduction of Yaroslav the Wise in 1096 a special tax – tithes to the poor, orphans and the sick. In the 11-12 centuries. Rus undoubted successes have been achieved in matters of health improvement, water supply and so on. n., as evidenced by, in particular, the archaeological finds in Novgorod, Pskov and other cities. However, came in the late 12th century. mezhduusobits feudal period and the subsequent Mongol yoke suspended for health development in Russia; Only after the elimination of fragmentation, of liberation from the Mongol-Tatar yoke and the formation of the centralized Moscow state there have been some shifts in the development of public health.
Already during the reign of Ivan III were established measures to combat epidemics. Trade Development Interests Ivan IV was forced to take measures on the improvement of trading cities and expand the fight against epidemics. the first steps to ensure the health of the army have been made. In 1581, the court opened the first pharmacy. Almost simultaneously established Aptekarskaya Chamber – the institution in charge of the affairs of the court physicians, which was soon transformed into the Apothecary order – the first medical institution management business in the state. Reform efforts of Peter I in many ways contributed to health development in Russia. Under Peter I the system of medical and sanitary services of the army has been created, significantly increased the number of doctors, medical and pharmaceutical institutions, organized military hospitals and civilian hospitals in Moscow, St Petersburg and other cities, published numerous legislative acts concerning protivoepidemich. activities, the organization of medical and sanitary affairs, regulation of medical practice and others.
The creation of the first hospital school in 1707 was the beginning of the preparation of the fatherland other medical personnel. The process of health management centralization was completed meditsinskoykantselyarii organization. With the development of industrial production created a need for medical care to, especially the state factories. Starting with the construction of the Izhora factory (1717), in the state factories were set up for the workers’ huts for mourners “a physician and a pharmacy. Patients were kept by deducting 1% of the workers salary, as well as through penalty amounts and donations. This form of medical care, the so-called Factory medicine, did not get, however, further widespread.
With immediate successors of Peter | and throughout the 18th century. State activities in the field of health was sent to fight the epidemic, to expand the network of hospitals in the cities and the increase in the number of medical personnel. Especially a lot in this respect did P. 3. Kondoidi (President of the Medical Office, 1753- 1760.), Who spent the reform of medical education and to give, in particular, a lot of attention to training midwives (midwives). The most important measure for creating a system of training local medical staff was the discovery on the initiative of MV Lomonosov Moscow University (1755) and the Faculty of Medicine at it (1764). Advanced materialistic ideas Lomonosov had a great influence on the formation of the first views of the founders of the original national scientific medical schools. In 1763, the medical office was transformed into a medical board headed by the president from among court officials. College Department was divided into two, one of which is in charge of the “works of the scientists” and the other – the administrative, financial and economic. The main concern of the college was to fight the persistence of epidemics. In the 18th century. there have been some developments in the area of 3, for example at the beginning of the century in Russia there were 150 doctors and by 1802 only in the state. service was held in 1519 doctors. In 1803 the Medical Board was abolished. Following the example of the French health management has been concentrated in the Ministry of Interior. This function creates the medical department were reduced to sanitation and police, providing medical care to the population is engaged in various departments, and coordination of the activities of these agencies was absent. In conditions of extreme shortage of medical personnel and medical facilities such decentralization of health management adversely affected the population consists of medical care.
A peculiar and, in fact, the first in the history of special medical and health organization dedicated to providing medical care to the rural population, was the so-called Zemstvo medicine. After the abolition of serfdom in 1864 so na5pzyvaemoe territorial self-government was introduced in 34 provinces established provincial and district zemstvo institutions. Although essentially local self-government did not have sufficient administrative privileges (the fullness of administrative power was concentrated in the hands of the governor) and material resources, they have done much for the development of culture, education and health care in some rural areas of Russia. This is primarily due to the fact that the leading figures of the Russian intelligentsia actively participated in the zemstvos; only their dedication and selflessness Zemstvo medicine owes its success. The undoubted achievement was the creation of the County Medical CAP (mainly medical assistant) to the rural population, the introduction of free medical service to farmers in a number Zemstvos, expansion of the network of hospitals, clinics and Zemsky organization known approach of stationary medical aid to the rural population. Figures zemstvo medicine within available to them limited opportunity to conduct anti-epidemic activities organized fight against epidemic diseases. Zemsky medicine is credited with the organization Zemsky health bureau of deep sanitary-statistical research, development and implementation of the principle of the precinct, which was perceived and developed in the new socio-economic foundations of Soviet public health. However, limited material, legal and human resource capacity, dependence on zemstvoes leadership, headed by the main representatives of the nobility, deprived zemstvo medicine possible to solve such fundamental health issues, as the organization of public medical and preventive care to the rural population, the organization of obstetric and medical care of the child population , health improvement of rural settlements and others.
In the 80-ies. in connection with the conversion of municipal government has evolved so called welfare urban medicine. The management of municipal governments in the field of health included the construction of hospitals and their management, development of medical care, the organization and carrying out of control activities and health improvement of cities. City Duma granted the right to issue regulations relating to the control measures, sanitary protection of water, sanitary conditions in the premises for the sale of foodstuffs, the sanitary condition of the factory and handicraft establishments, etc. However, the law does not establish a specific responsibility for the failure to comply with these regulations.; In addition, the right to issue sanitary regulations was quite limited overall legal status of urban municipalities, very cramped in the activity permanent administrative intervention of the police authorities. City Medicine practically fulfilled its tasks.
The growth of strikes and peasant unrest, and especially the revolution of 1905-1907. forced the government to declare a “civil reforms.” In 1912 a law was passed about the sickness funds, but it has not solved the problems of social security and medical aid workers. In 1912, at the insistence of the State Duma was created inter-ministerial commission for the revision of the medical-sanitary legislation. The Commission has collected a wealth of material about the health situation in Russia and spoke in favor of the creation of the main public health management minisiersva rights. However, this proposal was rejected. The First World War led to a significant deterioration in the organization of medical aid to the population, paralyzed and resulted in the decline of rural and urban health care institutions. The political and economic crisis which has developed in connection with the protracted war, the lack of food, worsening living conditions and others. Seriously affected the health of the country. The February revolution did not introduce any radical changes to the protection of public health.