Fish is a valuable food. Some of its types of protein content even outperform meat. Her fats are unique, most of them are unsaturated fatty acids, extremely useful for the body. Fish and seafood contain many important vitamins (for example, A, D, E), trace elements, as well as calcium and iodine.
The latter is indispensable for the thyroid gland and the formation of the nervous system and psyche of children. Calcium is needed for the health of teeth, bones, joints.
World fish consumption
It is constantly growing. In the middle of the twentieth century it was about 9 kg per year per capita. Now it has reached the value of 20 kg per person. According to experts, by 2024 it will grow to 22 kg.
Fish is one of the early Christian symbols. When the ancient Romans chased the first Christians, the image of fish was a kind of “password”, an identification mark for their own. Pisces was painted on either side of the anchor, which had a tip in the form of a cross.
In the United States, Christian churches still use this symbol. It is also used by Orthodox churches in Greece, Cyprus, Syria, it is embroidered on church attire.
Until the end of the 1990s, most countries extracted fish with the help of fishing with the use of nets, trawls, etc. But, since the 21st century, the world has been rapidly developing its artificial breeding in water bodies and on farms. In 2013, the production of fish in this way exceeded the production of beef meat.
The most extracted grade in the world is the Peruvian anchovy. It is followed by pollock, tuna, Atlantic herring and mackerel (mackerel).
Peruvian anchovy is the most numerous fish on Earth. In terms of quantity, it exceeds all other species. This is due to the favorable conditions of her residence. It is found off the coast of Peru and Chile. Water there is rich in a large number of nutrients, so it actively develops phytoplankton, which is the main food for the Peruvian anchovy. There are few predatory fish here that would threaten its safety. Its main enemies are birds that feed on fish: cormorants, gulls, pelicans. In addition, Peruvian anchovies do not migrate, but spend their whole lives in one place.
The main food of the Japanese are rice, fish and seafood. As a rule, they are subjected to insignificant heat treatment, and sometimes they are used in raw form. Algae are also widely used there. By the way, according to life expectancy the Japanese occupy the first place in the world. Specialists attribute this to their diet.
Sashimi is a common dish of Japanese cuisine, for the preparation of which fish fillets of different varieties are used, as well as seafood. Sashimi is used only in raw form. It is supplemented with soy sauce, spicy Japanese mustabi mustard, finely chopped thin plates of daikon (white radish) and siso leaves (greens-type melissa).
In the US, fish and seafood are a very popular food. They bring profit of 145 billion dollars a year.
Sushi is a dish of Japanese cuisine, which in recent years has spread widely in the world. Fish preparation technology originated in South Asia: there it was cleaned, finely chopped, sprinkled with salt and mixed with rice. Then placed under a stone press. There she lay for several months. During this time, fish and rice were subjected to lactic fermentation, so the fish could be used for a whole year. And rice got an unpleasant smell, so it was thrown away.
Now in Japan this method is not used, sushi is made from raw fish. Currently, this dish is increasingly made with the help of robotic machines that can replace dozens of chefs. And although true connoisseurs of land are against robots, because they believe that they must be cooked by humans, robots win.
Useful parts of fish often remain undervalued. For example, the head, the entrails and the skeleton, which are mainly thrown away, account for between 30% and 70% of the weight of the carcass and contain a large number of useful trace elements.
The popular fish raw material is surimi. It is made from white fish, which is first frozen, then ground into a homogeneous mass. Surimi has a neutral smell and taste, so it is mainly used to simulate various seafood. The most popular option – crab sticks.
This product in Japan was already known at the beginning of the XII century. In our time, the fish is first ground, then washed repeatedly with ice water. As a result, only unresolved proteins remain in it. Then, with the help of a centrifuge, the remaining moisture is finally removed. After that the forcemeat is cut in blocks and subjected to a quick freeze to minus 20 ºС. Then placed in containers, where the temperature is maintained minus 20 ºС, and delivered to the processing sites.
During processing 35% of fish and seafood are lost. These losses are twice as much as those that occur during the processing of meat.
8% of the extracted fish are thrown back into the water, as it is dead or severely damaged.
Powder mixtures made from seafood are an important food in some regions of the African continent. They replenish substances that are absent in the diet of people who eat, in the main, grain food.
Recipes of original fish dishes
Fish in beer
- Cut the mugs into 2 onions and put them on the bottom of a wide saucepan. Then add 3 bay leaves, 5 pcs. cloves, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of grated horseradish, salt, pepper, dry seasonings to taste.
- Cut pieces of 1.4 kg of fish fillets and put them on top. Fill all the beer so that it barely covers the pieces (you need about 1 liter of beer or less). Let the boil over a small fire. Then let it stew for about 1 hour with low heat.
- When the fish is soft, take out the pieces carefully, without breaking them, and put them on the dish. Keep warm.
- Let the sauce boil half, then wipe it through a sieve. If it is liquid, lightly thicken it with flour.
- Serve the dish with hot sauce in a separate gravy boat. On the side dish – boiled potatoes. Beer in the dish is not felt at all, there is only a tender taste and aroma.
Pescetarianism is the refusal to eat meat of warm-blooded animals. His supporters eat fish and shellfish instead of meat. They are also allowed vegetable food, eggs and milk. The most zealous followers of Pescetarians explain their rejection of meat by the fact that eating warm-blooded animals is close to cannibalism.
According to some researchers, fish is more useful than meat, since it contains essential for unsaturated fatty acids Omega-3.
Fish with wine, tomatoes and champignons
- First make the sauce. Press 2 cloves of garlic through the press. Finely chop 1 small onion and a handful of parsley. Mix all this with 400 g of thick tomato paste (ketchup is not good) and whisk with a blender or mixer until smooth.
- Cut 200 g of champignons.
- Take a refractory saucepan and put half of the sauce on the bottom. On it – half of chopped mushrooms. Salt and pepper.
- On mushrooms, put 800 g of fish fillet, cut into large pieces. Top – the remaining mushrooms. Cover everything with the remaining sauce. Pour 2 glasses of white wine and 2 tablespoons. 1 tablespoons vegetable oil.
- Put the saucepan in a preheated oven for 40 minutes. At the end, reduce the heat and sprinkle the dish with aromatic herbs.
Rolls are one of the varieties of sushi. Their peculiarity consists in twisting the food into a roll using a bamboo mat. Then roll cut into slices.
The rolls were created as transformed sushi for the American public, since she could not eat sushi with chopsticks, they broke. Also, Americans could not get used to Japanese names, so the rolls began to be called more familiar to them: “Philadelphia”, “California”, “Alaska”.
Fish with wine and raisins
- 100 g of raisins without pits fill with hot water for 20 minutes to make it soft.
- Cut 1 onion, 1 carrot, 1 bunch of parsley, 1 bunch of dill. Pour vegetables 1 liter of water and cook a broth from them. At the end, add salt, 3 tbsp. spoons of apple cider vinegar and 1 bottle of white wine (0.7 liters). Bring the broth to a boil and turn it off. Cool, strain.
- Cut 1.5 kg of fish fillets into large pieces, put them into a cooled broth and bring to a boil on low heat. Let it gurgle slightly for 1 hour.
- Then gently take out the fish and keep it warm.
- In the strained broth, add the raisin raisins and sauté sauce half. Slightly thicken it with flour, stirring constantly so that there are no lumps.
- Serve the fish, to her separately hot sauce. For a side dish – potatoes with fried onions.
Sushi has recently become very popular. They can be ordered with delivery to the house. They are made from raw fish, so this dish is perishable. If stored incorrectly in raw fish, dangerous bacteria develop that can lead to gastrointestinal diseases.
The most dangerous thing is that they can lead to infection with helminths (worms). Some people think that sharp sauces disinfect the fish, but this is an erroneous opinion!
For the preparation of sushi, it is supposed to take only ocean fish, since parasites are less frequent in it. But the river in its raw form can’t be used. Before this, it must be subjected to heat treatment, that is, to weld. Or you can use it after deep freezing, which destroys the parasites.
Sea and ocean fish species are also not completely safe. The most reliable ways to protect against helminths are deep freezing, salting, cooking, frying, stewing (the latter methods are not applicable for making sushi). Also hot smoked fish is safe.
In the European territory of Russia, for the sake of food safety, sushi is made from frozen raw materials.